Applying a toner is the second step of four in a complete morning and nighttime care regimen. After cleansing, toner is applied so that valuable nutrients can be maximally absorbed and nourish your skin through additional skin care steps. Toners are seen as a pre-moisturizer. They hydrate, refresh and assist in rebalancing skin’s flora. They reduce sebum production, support the integrity of capillary blood vessels by toning and firming, gently astringe skin and lift and remove any residues of makeup and dirt left behind after washing/cleansing. They also improve hydration of skin. Apply toner after washing your face, while skin is still slightly damp. Using a crocheted Cicco. Facial Pad, gently apply over skin. DO NOT scrub or be abrasive when applying. Apply gently in a circular motion over cheeks, then straight back and forth over chin, forehead and nose. Basically, follow the contours of your face. To prolong the life of your toner, keep it out of direct sunlight, in a cool and dry place. You may also choose to keep it in the refrigerator while in-between use. Never allow water to mix into your toner bottle as this provides a breeding ground for bacteria that we don’t want! Likewise, never allow contact with unclean applicators.